Logging from critical systems, applications, and services can provide essential information and potential indicators of compromise. Although logging information may not be viewed on a daily basis, it is critical to have from a forensics standpoint.
The purpose of this document attempts to address this issue by identifying specific requirements that information systems must meet to generate appropriate audit logs and integrate with an enterprise’s log management function.
The intention is that this language can easily be adapted for use in enterprise IT security policies and standards, and also in enterprise procurement standards and RFP templates. In this way, organizations can ensure that new IT systems, whether developed in-house or procured, support necessary audit logging and log management functions.
This policy applies to all production systems on eCuras Network.
4.1 General Requirements
All systems that handle confidential information accept network connections or make access control (authentication and authorization) decisions shall record and retain audit-logging information sufficient to answer the following questions:
- What activity was performed?
- Who or what performed the activity, including where or on what system the activity was performed from (subject)?
- What was the activity performed on (object)?
- When was the activity performed?
- What tool(s) was the activity performed with?
- What was the status (such as success vs. failure), outcome, or result of the activity?
4.2 Activities to be Logged
Therefore, logs shall be created whenever any of the following activities are requested to be performed by the system:
- Create, read, update, or delete confidential information, including confidential authentication information such as passwords;
- Create, update, or delete information not covered in #1;
- Initiate a network connection;
- Accept a network connection;
- User authentication and authorization for activities covered in #1 or #2 such as user login and logout;
- Grant, modify, or revoke access rights, including adding a new user or group, changing user privilege levels, changing file permissions, changing database object permissions, changing firewall rules, and user password changes;
- System, network, or services configuration changes, including installation of software patches and updates, or other installed software changes;
- Application process startup, shutdown, or restart;
- Application process abort, failure, or abnormal end, primarily due to resource exhaustion or reaching a resource limit or threshold (such as for CPU, memory, network connections, network bandwidth, disk space, or other resources), the failure of network services such as DHCP or DNS, or hardware fault; and
- Detection of suspicious/malicious activity such as from an Intrusion Detection or Prevention System (IDS/IPS), anti-virus system, or anti-spyware system.
4.3 Elements of the Log
Such logs shall identify or contain at least the following elements, directly or indirectly. In this context, the term “indirectly” means unambiguously inferred.
- Type of action – examples include authorize, create, read, update, delete, and accept network connection.
- Subsystem performing the action – examples include process or transaction name, process, or transaction identifier.
- Identifiers (as many as available) for the subject requesting the action – examples include a user name, computer name, IP address, and MAC address. Note that such identifiers should be standardized in order to facilitate log correlation.
- Identifiers (as many as available) for the object the action was performed on – examples include file names accessed, unique identifiers of records accessed in a database, and query parameters used to determine records accessed in a database, computer name, IP address, and MAC address. Note that such identifiers should be standardized in order to facilitate log correlation.
- Before and after values, when the action involves updating a data element, if feasible.
- Date and time the action was performed, including relevant time-zone information if not in Coordinated Universal Time.
- Whether the action was allowed or denied by access-control mechanisms.
- Description and/or reason-codes of why the action was denied by the access-control mechanism, if applicable.
4.4 Formatting and Storage
The system shall support the formatting and storage of audit logs in such a way as to ensure the integrity of the logs and to support enterprise-level analysis and reporting. Note that the construction of an actual enterprise-level log management mechanism is outside the scope of this document. Mechanisms known to support these goals include but are not limited to the following:
- Microsoft Windows Event Logs collected by a centralized log management system;
- Logs in a well-documented format sent via syslog, syslog-ng, or syslog-reliable network protocols to a centralized log management system;
- Logs stored in an ANSI-SQL database that itself generates audit logs in compliance with the requirements of this document; and
- Other open logging mechanisms supporting the above requirements, including those based on CheckPoint OpSec, ArcSight CEF, and IDMEF.
5. Policy Compliance
5.1 Compliance Measurement
The Infosec team will verify compliance with this policy through various methods, including but not limited to periodic walk-thrus, video monitoring, business tool reports, internal and external audits, and feedback to the policy owner.
The Infosec team must approve any exception to the policy in advance.
An employee found to have violated this policy may be subject to disciplinary action, up to and including termination of employment.
Revised: March 14th, 2018
Table of Content
- Acceptable Encryption Policy
- Acceptable Use Policy
- Clean Desc Policy
- Data Breach Response Policy
- Disaster Recovery Plan Policy
- Digital Signature Acceptance Policy
- Email Policy
- Ethics Policy
- Pandemic Response Planning Policy
- Password Construction Guidelines
- Password Protection Policy
- Security Response Plan Policy
- End User Encryption Key Protection Policy
- Acquisition Assessment Policy
- Bluetooth Baseline Requirements Policy
- Remote Access Policy
- Remote Access Tools Policy
- Router and Switch Security Policy
- Wireless Communication Policy
- Wireless Communication Standard
- Database Credentials Policy
- Technology Equipment Disposal Policy
- Information Logging Standard
- Lab Security Policy
- Server Security Policy
- Software Installation Policy
- Workstation Security (For HIPAA) Policy
- Web Application Security Policy
- Analog/ISDN Line Security Policy
- Anti-Virus Guidelines
- Server Audit Policy
- Automatically Forwarded Email Policy
- Communications Equipment Policy
- Dial In Access Policy
- Extranet Policy
- Internet DMZ Equipment Policy
- Internet Usage Policy
- Mobile Device Encryption Policy
- Personal Communication Devices and Voicemail Policy
- Removable Media Policy
- Risk Assessment Policy
- Server Malware Protection Policy
- Social Engineering Awareness Policy
- DMZ Lab Security Policy
- Email Retention Policy
- Employee Internet Use Monitoring and Filtering Policy
- Lab Anti Virus Policy
- Mobile Employee Endpoint Responsibility Policy
- Remote Access Mobile Computing Storage
- Virtual Private Network Policy